Medieval Monarchies in Europe CIVICS The Rule of Law The Magna Charta Libertatum was the first written document which limited the king s powers towards his subjects. Later on, in the 13th century, this document was the basis for the establishment of Britain s parliamentary system. Magna Charta Libertatum King John (1166-1216) was at war against France for many years and for this reason he was obliged to levy taxes to bear military expenses. When in 1214 during the war against France John was defeated at the Battle of Bouvines, his authority in England was weakened and the barons and the clergy showed their discontent. John was forced to negotiate with his adversaries, who wrote their demands in an important document that transformed the way to consider the relationship between the king and his subjects. This document is the Magna Charta Libertatum and was sealed by King John in 1215. The main principle the Magna Charta established was the notion that everyone is subject to the law, also the ruler of a country. In particular the barons succeeded in limiting the king s authority in fiscal policy. Another important article stated that free men could not be punished or imprisoned for a crime without a process. This is the principle of Habeas corpus. It is the first example of the protection of personal liberty: (39) No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled, or deprived of his standing in any way, nor will we proceed with force against him, or send others to do so, except by the lawful judgment of his equals or by the law of the land. (40) To no one will we sell, to no one deny or delay right or justice. A copy of Magna Charta Libertatum. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948. It is a milestone document in the history of human rights. Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status. Human rights include the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of opinion and expression, the right to work and education, and many more. ACTIVITY 6.A Pair work Working with a partner go to the following website and search the text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Read articles 8 and 9 that concern the right to legal process and personal liberty. Use a dictionary to translate them. ACTIVITY 6.B Individual research Amnesty International is an international organization that seeks to denounce any violations of human rights. In particular it fights against the use of torture, the death penalty and for the respect of the rights of prisoners. 1. Go to the following website On the homepage you will find a window titled What we do . Click on it and then choose the section called Detention . 2. In the Detention section there is a list of problems concerning the conditions of prisoners in the world. Read them and be sure to understand the meaning of all the words. If necessary, use a dictionary to translate them. 3. Write a short paragraph (120-150 words) explaining which, in your opinion, is the most serious problem among the seven in the list, and why. 577 77636R_0000E01_INTE_BAS@0577.pgs 15.09.2021 15:01